Understanding Rust Error E0577: Invalid Visibility Scope

Introduction to Rust Error E0577

Rust Error E0577 occurs when something other than a module is found in the visibility scope of an item. When this error is encountered, it indicates that the module path specified for visibility is invalid, and it should be corrected to resolve the error.

Erroneous code example

pub struct Sea;

pub (in crate::Sea) struct Shark; // error!

fn main() {}

In this code example, we tried to use the Sea struct in a visibility path, but this is invalid because Sea is not a module. To fix this error, we need to create a module and use the correct visibility scope for the item.

Corrected code example

pub mod sea {
    pub (in crate::sea) struct Shark; // ok!

fn main() {}

In the corrected code, we've created a module called 'sea' and redefined the Shark struct within this module. The visibility scope is now valid because it points to an ancestor module.

Understanding Visibility Scopes

In Rust, visibility scopes determine the access level of items within a crate or module. Items can be marked public, private, or with a specified path to limit their accessibility. The visibility scope can only be applied to ancestor modules, so it's essential to ensure the correct module hierarchy when defining item visibility.


To fix Rust Error E0577, ensure you are using the correct module path when defining the visibility scope of an item, and remember that the visibility scope can only be applied to ancestor modules. By understanding the rules and following the appropriate syntax, you can resolve this error and create a well-structured Rust program.