Rust Error E0225: Handling Multiple Trait Bounds in Closures and Trait Objects

Overview of Rust Error E0225

Rust Error E0225 occurs when you attempt to use multiple non-auto trait bounds in closures or trait objects. In Rust, closures and trait objects only allow one non-builtin trait plus any number of auto traits. This limit exists because the current implementation doesn't support multiple trait bounds for closures and trait objects.

Erroneous code example:

fn main() {
    let _: Box<dyn std::io::Read + std::io::Write>;

Solving Rust Error E0225

To resolve Rust Error E0225, you must adhere to the Rust rules and only use one non-builtin trait plus any number of auto traits. Auto traits, such as Send and Sync, are exempt from this limitation. Below is an example of correcting the erroneous code from the previous section:

fn main() {
    let _: Box<dyn std::io::Read + Send + Sync>;

In this example, the code compiles successfully because it adheres to the rule of one non-builtin trait (std::io::Read) and includes two auto traits (Send and Sync).

Further considerations and alternatives

If there's a need to use multiple non-auto trait bounds, you can consider creating a new trait that encapsulates the desired functionality and implements the required traits. This way, you can use that new trait as a single bound in a closure or trait object. The following example demonstrates this approach:

trait ReadWrite: std::io::Read + std::io::Write {}
impl<T: std::io::Read + std::io::Write> ReadWrite for T {}

fn main() {
    let _: Box<dyn ReadWrite + Send + Sync>;

In the code above, a new ReadWrite trait is defined that encapsulates std::io::Read and std::io::Write functionalities. This new trait is then implemented for all types T satisfying the required traits. Finally, in the main function, the ReadWrite trait is used as a single trait bound in the trait object, allowing the code to compile correctly.